TREATMENT

Medication

Medication is the most common treatment for controlling seizures and is in most cases the first trial of therapy. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) control seizures for approximately 7 out of 10 people living with epilepsy. There are many different AEDs and different medicines help with different types of epilepsy.  Doctors will consider many factors when prescribing an AED and some of these considerations include:

  •  Type of seizure
  •  Other medical diagnoses a person may have
  •  Age and gender
  •  Potential side effects of a medication
  •  Interaction of the AED with other medications a person may be taking
  •  If you are a woman who is planning a pregnancy
  •  It is important to discuss with your doctor the different AED therapies.  A person should not stop or change their seizure medicine without talking to their doctor, as this could cause serious complications. Side effects to medications should be reported to your doctor immediately.

 

Vagus Nerve Stimulation

Vagus nerve stimulation therapy (VNS) is a treatment designed to prevent seizures by sending regular, small pulses of electrical energy along the vagus nerve to the brain. These pulses are supplied by a device similar to a pacemaker for the heart. The VNS is sometimes referred to as a pacemaker for the brain. The VNS device is implanted by a surgeon. It is placed under the skin on the chest wall and a wire runs from the device to the vagus nerve in the neck.  The vagus nerve is part of the autonomic nervous system. A portion of the vagus nerve passes through the neck making it accessible to surgeons. VNS therapy can improve seizure control and quality of life for some individuals over time.  

To learn more about VNS therapy:  http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/treating-seizures-and-epilepsy/devices/vagus-nerve-stimulation-vns

 

 Therapeutic Diets

The Ketogenic Diet is a special high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that helps to control seizures in some people with epilepsy. It should be prescribed by a doctor and carefully monitored by a dietitian. It requires careful measurements of calories, fluids, and proteins.  Ketogenic means that it produces ketones in the body (keto = ketone, genic = producing). Ketones are formed when the body uses fat for its source of energy. Usually the body uses carbohydrates for its fuel, but because the ketogenic diet is very low in carbohydrates, fats become the primary fuel instead.

Doctors typically recommend the ketogenic diet for children or adults whose seizures have not responded to multiple seizure medications. Several studies have demonstrated that the ketogenic diet can reduce or prevent seizures in some children whose seizures were not well controlled on AED therapy. To learn more about the Ketogenic Diet visit:

http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/treating-seizures-and-epilepsy/dietary-therapies/ketogenic-diet

 

Surgery

Brain surgery is another therapeutic option for individuals who have seizures that cannot be controlled with medication or other forms of treatment. Surgical procedures for epilepsy have been used for more than a century, and the use of surgery dramatically increased in the 1980s and 90s, reflecting its effectiveness as an alternative to seizure medicines for patients with refractory seizures. Extensive testing is necessary prior to surgery and not all patients are candidates for surgery. Epileptologists work together with neurosurgeons, neuropsychologists and neuroradiologists to review each individual case prior to making a decision about surgery. The benefits of surgery should be weighed carefully against its risks.

 

Medical Marijuana

Medical use of cannabis has been legalized in many  states. People living with uncontrolled seizures who have previously attempted other forms of treatment have reported beneficial effects and reduced seizure activity, especially with CBD oil.  Early research study results are promising. However, individuals should be cautious in arriving at an informed treatment decision and discuss this treatment option with their neurologist/epileptologist.

 

Responsive Neurostimulation (RNS)

Responsive neurostimulation is a newer approach to treating medically uncontrolled partial onset seizures.  The RNS® System is the first device to provide responsive neurostimulation, automatically monitoring brain signals and providing stimulation to abnormal electrical brain events just when it is needed. The system is approved by FDA as an adjunctive treatment for adults with medically refractory partial seizures that come from one or two seizure targets identified by your doctor.

The RNS neurostimulator is placed under the scalp and within the skull by a neurosurgeon. One or two leads are then placed at the seizure target and connected to the neurostimulator. Once the scalp heals, the neurostimulator should not be noticeable to others. The neurostimulator continuously monitors the brain’s activity and is programmed by the epilepsy doctor to detect and record specific patterns that could lead to a seizure.  When these patterns are detected, the neurostimulator responds with brief pulses of stimulation intended to disrupt the abnormal brain activity before a seizure occurs.  Detection and stimulation settings are individualized for each patient’s patterns and so that stimulation is not felt. In addition, each patient gets a take-home monitor so that brain activity data can be sent to the epilepsy doctor between office visits.

The RNS System is manufactured by NeuroPace, Inc. 

Additional information : (http://www.neuropace.com/) and http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/treating-seizures-and-epilepsy/devices/responsive-neurostimulation